The edited file has likely been re-imported, but it may not be visible if the Lightroom Classic Filmstrip is set to 'Previous Import'. This is a default setting that Lightroom Classic applies after importing images from a camera. To view the edited file, you need to right-click on 'Previous Import' and select 'All Photographs' instead.
However, if you don't want to view your entire catalog, you can right-click on one of the source images and choose 'Go to Folder in Library.' This will take you directly to the folder where the original photo is located.
Alternatively, you can just click on the folder containing the original photo in the Catalog tab. This will re-focus Lightroom on that folder and display all the files that are currently in it. It's also possible to find the processed image in Catalog > All Photographs.